Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not.
However, these studies may have yielded inaccurate estimates because of the underrepresentation of non-English-speaking groups. Current and lifetime smoking status was assessed through a population-based survey administered to Asian American adults aged 18 and older. An overall current smoking prevalence of
Aimei Mao, Katie Bristow, Jude Robinson, Caught in a dilemma: why do non-smoking women in China support the smoking behaviors of men in their families? Gender is a key, but often overlooked, determinant of tobacco use. Globally, male smoking prevalence is over four times that of women [ 1 ].
Tobacco smoking has been linked to approximately 2 million deaths among adult men and women in Asia in recent years, according to a new study that predicts the death toll will continue to rise. Researchers say the rise in smoking among Asians follows aggressive product marketing by tobacco companies and a lack of education about health issues related to tobacco. For the study published in PLOS Medicineinvestigators pooled data from large cohort studies conducted in Asia and included demographic and risk factor information collected in seven Asian regions from the early s through the late s although most of the studies enrolled participants after the mids.
The objectives of this review were to determine whether the smoking paradox still exists and to summarize possible explanations for the smoking paradox. Based on published data, we compared the risk of cigarette smoking for lung cancer in Western and Asian countries. We extracted data from the relevant studies about annual tobacco consumption, lung cancer mortality rates according to smoking status from each country, and possible explanations for the smoking paradox.
Asian countries are in the early stages of a tobacco smoking epidemic with habits mirroring those of the United States from past decades, setting the stage for a spike in future deaths from smoking-related diseases. Using long-term follow-up data from those cohorts, the study — published in JAMA Network Open — is the largest investigation in Asian countries of birth cohort-specific and county- or region-specific smoking patterns and their association with deaths. Tobacco control interventions may be having an effect on the smoking epidemic in some countries or areas because male smokers in the most recent birth cohort tended to quit smoking at younger ages.
Tobacco control legislation does exist, but public enforcement is rare to non-existent outside the most highly internationalized cities, such as Shanghai and Beijing. Outside the mainland however, enforcement is strong in the Hong Kong special administrative region. Furthermore, outside the largest cities in Chinasmoking is considered socially acceptable anywhere at any time, even if it is technically illegal. Yang Gonghuan, deputy director of the National Center of Disease Control of China, said that progress on tobacco control is not moving quickly because the government derives large tax revenues from tobacco sales, and the industry employs a large workforce.
He unsheathed a Parliament and took a long drag, as though he were taking in a breath of relief. All around him, other Asian men engaged in the same ritual, on the sidewalks, in doorways and on bicycles. On Thursday, the department stepped up its appeals to Asian smokers, introducing graphic ads in Chinese for its annual campaign to distribute nicotine patches and gum, and offering Chinese speakers for those who call to enroll in the program.